Donika Bardhi1, Albana Fico1,5, Silva Bino1,5, Hasan Hafizi2, Sonela Xinxo3, Dritan Mema4 , Silva Tafaj2, Blerina Kodra1, Elina Mukaj1
1 Insitute of Public Health, Tirana, Albania;
2 University Hospital “ Shefqet Ndroqi”, Tirana, Albania;
3 Project of Global Fund, Tirana, Albania;
4 Primary Health Care, Tirana, Albania;
5 Faculty of medicine, University of Medicine, Tirana, Albania
Background: Extra pulmonary tuberculosis is a therapeutic challenge. This is a cross-sectional retrospective review of the epidemiology of extra pulmonary tuberculosis from 2011 to 2017. Under diagnosis and over diagnosis of extra pulmonary is often reported.
Methods: We used data from national tuberculosis program and included all cases of tuberculosis diagnosed in the Albania from 2011 to 2017. Information on age, sex, year of diagnosis, anatomic location of the site of disease, was retrieved from data base.
Results: In Albania during 2011–2017, 925 cases of extra pulmonary were reported. Males were 581(63%) and females 344 (37%). the number of cases diagnosed by year is as follows: 170 (38.2%) in 2011, 129 (30%) in 2012, 108 (25.7%) in 2013, 141 (29.7%) in 2014, 147 (36%) in 2015, 117 (28.2%) in 2016 and 113 (27.2%) in 2017.
Sputum smears examination, x-ray examination, culture examination and tissue biopsy were carried out in 58 %, 42.3%, 18% and 15 % of patients respectively for extra pulmonary diagnosis. The most affected group age was < 65 years (23%), pleural effusion (35%) and lymph node (15.7%) were most common types of extra pulmonary patients live in urban areas (60%) rather than rural (40%). the mean age of extra pulmonary patients is 44.5 and pulmonary patients is 41.2. incidence of extra pulmonary has decreased from 5.5/100.000 in 2010 to 5.1/100000 in 2017.
Conclusions: Extra pulmonary during 2011-2017 shows a slight decrease in incidence, but the rates is still very high. Diagnosis of extra pulmonary has been made based of guidelines, however long delay has been reported in most cases before the final diagnosis. Microbiological proof is the key to diagnosis and treatment, and tissue biopsy that should be required regularly.
Keyword: Albania, examinations, extra pulmonary, tuberculosis.